The system is still minimum. Configure the base system and install basic tools.
APT will get only basic software by default. Add “contrib” and “non-free” to install more applications.
# vi /etc/apt/sources.list
Delete unnecessary “cdrom” lines (it's only for the installation).
You can delete “deb-src” lines unless you plan to download the source code.
deb http://ftp.jp.debian.org/debian/ bullseye main contrib non-free deb http://security.debian.org/debian-security bullseye-security main contrib non-free # bullseye-updates, to get updates before a point release is made; # see https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-reference/ch02.en.html#_updates_and_backports deb http://ftp.jp.debian.org/debian/ bullseye-updates main contrib non-free deb http://ftp.jp.debian.org/debian/ bullseye-backports main contrib non-free
In fact, you only need four lines. After editing the apt-line, check if the update completes without errors.
# apt update # apt upgrade
If you have any errors, check the apt-line.
Install basic utilities. The lineup may change according to your server usage. Here is my case.
# apt install bind9-dnsutils man-db net-tools nkf rsync telnet tmux wget curl
Install major programming languages. This will be required when installing some tools.
(Python should have already been installed with fail2ban, but listed here to make sure.)
# apt install ruby ruby-dev python3 php php7.4-fpm perl
For PHP, the timezone has to be set to php.ini. There are 2 php.ini files, for CLI:/etc/php/7.4/cli/php.ini and FPM:/etc/php/7.4/fpm/php.ini.
[Date] ; Defines the default timezone used by the date functions ; http://php.net/date.timezone date.timezone = "Asia/Tokyo"
You need to restart php-fpm after changing php.ini.
# systemctl reload php7.4-fpm
Each language offers external modules. Python pip, Ruby gems, PHP pecl. There are multiple way to use them, but if you don't need too many modules, the major modules may be available as a debian package. If you're ok with the debian package, you don't have to care about the version discrepancies between packaged languages and modules.
For example, PHP cURL is available as php7.4-curl package.
Since I need to display Japanese characters, ja_JP locale has to be added.
# dpkg-reconfigure locales
Then select “ja_JP.UTF-8” to add locales. If you need to use more languages, select whatever you need.
The default locale is recommended to be kept English as described in the Debian installation.
Vi IMproved. If you feel vi is OK to use, please install this to enhance the simple vi editor. If you don’t like it, you can find alternatives.
# apt install vim # vi /etc/vim/vimrc
Now you can see the colored config file since the command “vi” now calls “vim”. Here is my case of configuration.
" Vim5 and later versions support syntax highlighting. Uncommenting the next " line enables syntax highlighting by default. syntax on " If using a dark background within the editing area and syntax highlighting " turn on this option as well set background=dark * snip * " Uncomment the following to have Vim load indentation rules and plugins " according to the detected filetype. filetype plugin indent on " The following are commented out as they cause vim to behave a lot " differently from regular Vi. They are highly recommended though. "set showcmd " Show (partial) command in status line. set showmatch " Show matching brackets. "set ignorecase " Do case insensitive matching "set smartcase " Do smart case matching set incsearch " Incremental search "set autowrite " Automatically save before commands like :next and :make "set hidden " Hide buffers when they are abandoned "set mouse=a " Enable mouse usage (all modes) * snip * " Additional configuration for me set number set ambiwidth=double
I used to use NTP to synchronize the time, but systemd-timesyncd is better.
systemd-timesyncd is already installed and enabled by default, and it refers to debian ntp pool servers. If you can use nearer NTP servers, add it to /etc/systemd/timesyncd.conf
[Time] NTP=available.ntp.server.here #FallbackNTP=0.debian.pool.ntp.org 1.debian.pool.ntp.org 2.debian.pool.ntp.org 3.debian.pool.ntp.org #RootDistanceMaxSec=5 #PollIntervalMinSec=32 #PollIntervalMaxSec=2048
Restart the service to enable it.
# systemctl restart systemd-timesyncd
systemd-timesyncd gets time data from another server and adjusts the local clock. If you have to set up the NTP server to distribute the time data, you have to use NTP.
t the installation, only IPv4 is set up and IPv6 is disabled. Configure /etc/network/interfaces to enable IPb6 address.
(You have to find out what is the interface name. Normally that is already set up for IPv4. In my case, it was ens3.)
# IPv6 allow-hotplug ens3 iface ens3 inet6 static address 2401:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx gateway xxxx::1 netmask 64 dns-nameservers 2401:xxxx::1
To apply the configuration, restart the server. There should be some process to restart networks, but I just don’t know the proper way…
After reboot, reconnect the server and check if IP addresses are set.
# ip address